Identification

STATISTIC DATA ON THE HVAC - HVAC&R MARKET IN EUROPE, MIDDLE-EAST AND AFRICA

FOSSIL FUELS

1. Barrel of oil equivalent (boe) = approx. 6.1 GJ (5.8 million Btu), equivalent to 1,700 kWh. "Petroleum barrel" is a liquid measure equal to 42 U.S. gallons (35 Imperial gallons or 159 liters); about 7.2 barrels oil are equivalent to one tonne of oil (metric) = 42-45 GJ.

2. Gasoline

US gallon = 115,000 Btu = 121 MJ = 32 MJ/liter (Lower heating value LHV).

US gallon = 125,000 Btu = 132 MJ = 35 MJ/liter (Higher heating value HHV)

  • ­ Metric tonne gasoline = 8.53 barrels = 1356 liter = 43.5 GJ/t (LHV); 47.3 GJ/t (HHV)
  • ­ Gasoline density (average) = 0.73 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3)

3. Petro-diesel = 130,500 Btu/gallon (36.4 MJ/liter or 42.8 GJ/t)

  • ­ Petro-diesel density (average) = 0.84 g/ml ( = metric tonnes/m3)

4. Metric tonne coal = 27-30 GJ (bituminous/anthracite); 15-19 GJ (lignite/sub-bituminous) (the above ranges are equivalent to 11,500-13,000 Btu/lb and 6,500-8,200 Btu/lb).

5. Natural gas: HHV = 1027 Btu/ft3 = 38.3 MJ/m3; LHV = 930 Btu/ft3 = 34.6 MJ/m3

  • ­ Therm (used for natural gas, methane) = 100,000 Btu (= 105.5 MJ)